Recently in certain circles in today's Russia more popularity is gaining
the concept of the "Third Way". This supposes that this concept
is opposed to two first ones- communism and democracy. However it is
extremely difficult to realize or define its essential difference. Quite
probably, one of the reasons is inaccuracy of the formulation itself.
When one says "the third", they automatically put it in one
line with the two previous ones, i.e. the action evolves at the same
plane, and there happens no transition to another level, no radical
change of situation. In this connection, it seems more appropriate to
use another term: not "the third", but the Different Way.
So, be it different peculiar way. Yet what is its basic difference?
It is necessary at once to say that it's possible to ascribe to the
Different Way various movements of so called fascist kin. Certainly
it is known, that these movements (Italian fascism, German national
socialism, Spanish phalangism, Romanian guardism, Belgian rexism, movement
of Salazar in Portugal etc.) have had distinctions, and sometimes quite
essential, therefore they may and should be distinguished between each
other. However, the purpose of the present article is yet to reveal
their inner unity and difference in relation to democracy and communism,
therefore hereinafter they will be referred to simply as fascist, as
accepted today. Many people are surprised and indignant at the increasing
interest to fascism in our times. Really, it is possible to agree that
this tendency has a bit irrational character. The matter is not about
general reproaches and debates on how much suffering brought fascism
in our land, as if communists and liberals were engaged exclusively
into nice deeds here… Nevertheless considering stereotype image with
which fascism is presented to us today, indeed it seems very difficult
to feel sympathy towards it. Yet nevertheless it happens (in Italy there
is a curious term for this phenomenon- philofascism). We may say about
intuitive, instinctive rather than rational character of this inclination
to fascism. Many would consider it as shortcoming, however such inconvenient
position is quite justifiable. Certainly the ability to count ("ratio"
derives from a Latin verb "reri" = to count) is necessary
for the man, however it is impossible to consider this skill a highest
ability of humans.
The same may be applied to historical knowledge. Not speaking about
its complexity it is in general, it is absolutely obvious that today
it's quite problematic to evaluate objectively the particular meaning
and true mission of fascism. Partly it is connected with a lack of proper
information, but in greater degree with extremely great bias in selection
of information on the subject (which is true relating to both opponents
and defenders of fascism). But the main problem is in impossibility
to comprehend the issue "from outside": this is possible only
"from inside". Yet the very wish to understand the essence
of fascism as it was and its difference from other political movements,
is quite legitimate.
Today when we want to find parallels to or differences of one system
vs. another, we use to operate with social, economic or political categories
(as a rule the latter are always put on a level dependable on economy).
However one may look at the problem from another side - from the point
of Weltanschauung, worldview. In this case the term "ideology"
does not match adequately because what matters is not just an idea but
namely the people's attitude towards world and life.
Proceeding from that, as the fundamental difference of fascism from
democracy and communism we could consider its anti-materialistic and
anti-atheistic orientation. In confirmation to this we could give many
facts and quotes, yet let's limit ourselves to the one. As Himmler put
it, the person not trusting in God "ist uberheblich, grosenwahnsinning
und dumm, er ist fur uns nicht geeignet" (self-confident impudent
fellow suffering with megalomania and foolish; such a person does not
suit us [i.e. SS staff]) (J. Evola, "Il fascismo visto dalla Destra,
ed. Settimo Sigillo, Roma, 1989, p.196). In other words, not every believer
can become a fascist, but a fascist cannot be an atheist. At the same
time it's not proper to call the fascist just religious, at least from
the point of view of modern understanding of religiosity. Firstly, for
a fascist God is primly the Mystery and Power, not the priestly or moral
law. Secondly, a fascist not simply trusts in God, but we may say that
for him the existence of God is absolutely obvious, the confirmation
of which is the fact of existence of the World itself (World as cosmos/Universe,
sacred law and Order as compared to modern "official" understanding
of "world"). From there follows a special attitude of a fascist
to the world. This world for him is not something dead-born, ordinary
and banal, but living Entity, greatest mystery and enigma. As the world
is a creature of superhuman powers, God, living in it cannot be considered
as a punishment for committed sins. Living within the world is the greatest
joy and greatest testing. Therefore what others consider as a misfortune
and suffering, a fascist considers as testing of his forces and abilities,
as an opportunity to realize his willpower. The heavier is testing,
the fierce is the struggle, the greater power he's got. The qualitative
characteristic of this world is richness of Sacred Presence.
It is obvious that from such a viewpoint, this modern world devoid
of God is no more the world of Order, but rather its antipode- chaos.
The characteristic of chaos is its essential homogeneity and infinity
that excludes opportunity of orientation and consequently of any evolvement.
Therefore the human cannot live in chaos, he needs something to oppose
it. However paradoxically, chaos has its own positive feature: everything
is possible in chaos. Including World's creation, creativity. Modern
world is devoid of any God, for the world God remains somewhere behind,
hidden in inaccessible past or, in the best, may appear in the end of
time in uncertain future. But for the fascist, who always maintains
God in himself, He is Always and Everywhere, here and now. Feeling live
presence of God in himself, the fascist finds in Him the point of rest,
World's pole, thus making possible some orientation and the way/movement.
Kindling in himself a sacred flame in which illusory world burns down,
he cleanses himself and all around him, giving an opportunity for the
deadly world to become the real World, God's Order subjected not to
rigid laws of economy and historical or biological evolution, but to
live sacral principle of Higher Justice and Reason: Suum cuique, jedem
das seine. Thus he takes on himself a greatest risk and hardest burden
and responsibility, because this law spreads on him too, and if he doesn't
prove to be on the top doing his best, this flame will burn him too.
And if he fights and holds on, he will acquire greatest power, because
creativity is a godly force…
Fascism is blamed for many things, including anti-humanism. Perhaps
this is one of few accusations with which one may fully agree. It is
necessary only to find out what properly is "humanism". The
main principle of humanism says: the man is the greatest value of all.
But isn't it denying of God? Fascist Anti-humanism has direct relation
to the anti-materialistic nature of humanism. Fascism insist on a priority
of transcendent values exceeding human realm- values of the higher,
godly level. Everything in the world, including the man, has a value
only because it is connected with transcendent reality. To be the human
is only one of the possible forms of existence and as any other form
it has its own limits, and only transcending them it is possible to
attain a higher plane.
If we try to determine fascism from the point of view of philosophy,
perhaps it is possible to define it as immanent transcendentalism. Speaking
otherwise, for fascism the human is valuable by his paradoxical inner
and original (immanent) connection to Something which surpasses him,
in particular to God (in metaphysical sense). It is paradoxical because
in principle all relating to God is considered unattainable and incomprehensible
for the humans (i.e. transcendent for them). In ancient times there
existed such concept as "initiation" which meant overcoming
of profane narrow state of mundane existence and radical change of human
nature. Not without reason some people were named "twice-born".
It is doubtful to claim similar mysteries within fascism, however I
can risk to assert that the tendency to revive ancient rituals may be
characteristical of fascist movements as well.
It is obvious that the presence of such tendencies dictates special
attitude to death. Death remains the sole authentic companion and guide,
master of initiation, it allows the human in the end to overcome himself.
Not a black hole of materialists, but just a new step, a new stage on
the way, faithful adviser - that is the death for the fascist. This
pushes the fascist to most dangerous, heavy and problematic in his life.
Fascist does not refrains nor refuses from life, but he can tell "Yes"
not only to the life, but also to the death.
Not the slave of the God, but a warrior of God, the fascist fights
with chaos and its monstrous generation - huge Golem, a creature without
soul, revived with the help of black magic of materialism - i.e. with
the modern primitive "world". He does not aim to destroy chaos,
but to create from chaos the real World, to return its mystery and joy,
to return God to the world - that is the main task of fascist movement,
that is Different Way…
Probably many people would think that all the above is too far from
concrete practical life and therefore not relevant. However as it was
once said about theoretical preconditions of the movement by a person,
known first of all as a greatest practical man: "The task is...
not to estimate from different sides the level of its [i.e. theory's
or program's] feasibility at each given moment, but to show with maximum
possible clarity its essence... It is possible to say that Gods patronize
them [i.e. them, who define program tasks] namely when they demand something
impossible…" (Adolf Hitler, "Mein Kampf", Moscow, 1992,